Saturday, May 16, 2015

ICOC Wash DC Aug 2015 Should you go?

The ICOC or International Conference on Oriental Carpets is the most important and prestigious event in the field of Antique Oriental Rugs. The biggest names in the field of Oriental Rugs come together for Presentations, a Dealers Fair, all sorts of Events plus Fellowship and Networking with the most prominent names in Oriental Rugs.

A Bergama Yastik

Why should this be important to an Oriental Rug Washer?

The more you know about rugs the more your customers will rust you. The more you know and understand Great Oriental Rugs the more likely customers are to trust you with their very best rugs. When you mention a rug you saw at ICOC your customer will see you as a rug expert rather than some glorified Carpet Cleaner or Janitor.

When your customer does not respect they are far more resistant to your prices and services.  When they say that price is more than I want to spend they are really saying that they do no think YOU are worth it.

Attending the ICOC is like taking University level courses in Antique Oriental Rugs.

ICOC 1986: Antique oriental carpets from Austrian collections Important ICOC-exhibition catalogue
Conference proceedings are regularly turned into scholarly books that appeal to the Collector Community. When you set one of these in your customer area you will be astounded by the reaction when you mentioned you attended.

Alberto Borilevi, Wendel Swan, and Bruce Baganz
The best and the brightest scholars and collectors attend. It is a chance to rub elbows with men like Italian scholar Alberto Boralevi, American collector Wendel Swan Chair, Executive Committee of the ICOC and Textile Museum Chairman of the Board Bruce Baganz along with many others. 

The Cadle small Bakhtiyari Gabbeh
One of the hardest things to learn about Oriental Rugs is why is one rug worth $1,000 and another rug not all that different is worth $100,000. This conference will give you an understanding and perspective into the magic of great rugs. Knowledge that your customers will perceive and respond to.

Attending ICOC is a Investment in your Future!

The 13th ICOC Conference will be held in Washington DC from 6 – 9 August 2015. This edition of these always popular Conferences is being held in collaboration with and in support of the new Textile Museum on the campus of George Washington University. Memorable events will include, among other events, a series of lectures produced by ICOC at GWU, special admission to the important opening exhibition that fills the new museum, a reception, other exhibitions in and around Washington, access to The Textile Museum's new conservation and storage facilities and a post-Conference tour to Philadelphia and New York City.

Details and registration for the Conference will begin April 1, 2015. However, there will be a limitation on the numbers of registrants. Special hotel packages and extraordinarily favorable rates are being arranged. A Carpet Fair will be separately organized.

Sunday, May 10, 2015

The Manifesto of Chlorinated Shame

One of the most terrible manifestos in the history of Rug Washing was when Tom Monaghan posted a letter purportedly by Robert Mann of Robert Mann Oriental Rugs. 5115 Race Ct, Denver, CO 80216 on a Carpet Cleaning discussion board. 
I post this in the hopes that Robert Mann will repudiate this shameful letter and clarify his position on Bleaching Rugs with Chlorine. Come on Robert say No to Damaging rugs with Bleach:

(Notice that Tom referred to the SECRET DICHLOR REPORT)
From Tom Monaghan:
Over the years, I have had the privilege to engage in discussions with many authentic and serious rug washers about the use of chlorine compounds in Oriental rug cleaning. One such recent discussion prompted Robert Mann of Robert Mann Oriental Rugs to email me his observations. His response to me was the result of reading another test result that was conducted on di-chlor and its use in the Centrum Force Starr Wash Tub. With Robert's permission, please find copied below his remarks on the subject line of this posted thread:

Email dated 10/9/13

Dear Tom,

Thanks for the testing info. It's interesting stuff, and I'm happy to see it. 

There are people worried about the use of chlorine compounds in Oriental rug cleaning, but I am not one of them. Various procedures using chlorine have been employed safely in the laundry and rug cleaning industry for a long time. New applications for different chlorine compounds (sodium chlorite and hypochlorous acid) are being developed and tested by rug cleaners today with promising and useful results. Sharing and discussing these results openly may lead to advances in our industry. 

Current talk regarding the alleged dangers and 'recklessness' of the use of chlorine compounds in rug cleaning seems a partisan attack whose goals are obscure. Certainly one can damage rugs or wool with chlorine compounds, but the contention that the use of this chemical is somehow absolutely 'wrong' falls in the same category as arguments suggesting that 'cars kill people'. Everyone's tool box contains implements which, when inappropriately used, can cause damage. We live with realities of this sort everyday; skill, training, and well developed procedures make this possible.

Historically chlorine compounds have been employed for many years to 'finish wash' rugs. This practice is still common today and has been used on the majority of handmade wool rugs we see as cleaners.

What am I talking about? The finishing of wool rugs, wool yarns, and other wool goods often involves the use of acids and chlorine compounds employed together to alter the structural properties of wool at the fiber level. Traditionally this was known as 'chlorination of wool'; today industry often refers to these wools as having been 'super washed'. These common processes are used to control shrinkage and felting, make wools easier to dye, to increase sheen and improve the 'hand' of the fiber. 

In the finish washing of new rugs this process is also used to reduce color intensity, creating a softened 'antique' look. The Oriental rug trade calls this 'luster washing' or 'antique washing' and in fact a majority of wool hand knotted rugs produced during the last 100 years or so have been washed this way to varying degrees. These are often very strong washes with surprisingly high concentrations of chlorine, sometimes applied at temperatures that dramatically accelerate their action.

A. Cecil Edwards, in his book "The Persian Carpet", suggests that chlorination and other 'antique washing' processes began around 1900 and evolved out of a need to supply the market with 'old looking' rugs when existing stocks were depleted by increased demand from the US and Europe. Fashion being what it is, the use of luster washing persists today because 'shiny' sells. 

Whether this is a good thing or not is a matter of opinion. Certainly there are whole categories of rugs that may have been 'over washed'. Af-Pak Choobi rugs come to mind, as do 90-line Chinese. Taste and fashion have dictated the use of these washes to a large degree and as we all know, tastes change over time.

Most antique Iranian rugs we see have been chlorine washed, often very heavily. Nearly all Sarouks, Kashans, Kermans, etc. were luster washed when they passed through European traders hands, or after they landed in the US. Modern Iranian rugs are heavily washed too. The highly regarded Zollanvari Gabbe productions that have been popular in the US for twenty years now have a very strong wash used on them. In fact the use of these washes is so pervasive that when we see the occasional rug that was not chlorine washed it looks so different that we are surprised by it's appearance.

I personally had the opportunity at the Woven Legends company to write the formulations for their washes for over twenty years. We did extensive testing on new production lines. Weaker washes, stronger washes, continually monitoring the results. Pretty much everybody else in modern production did the same; India, Iran, China, Pakistan, Romania, Turkey. I observed this personally. Nepal is an exception to the rule; producers there did not luster wash themselves, but rather sent goods to Knecht AG, a large washing company in Switzerland, a practice now discontinued because of cost and changes in fashion.

The washes used at Woven Legends were average in strength by industry standard. '150ml available chlorine' liquid bleach would be added to the wash tub at a rate of 3.5% of water weight and then boosted with .3% caustic soda by weight. That is about 245 liters of liquid bleach, about 30 gallons, in 7000 liters of water. The wash tub was fitted with a steam jet that brought run temperatures to 40 degrees Celsius, about 104 F. The rugs were run at this temperature for twenty minutes, the tank drained, and run again for twenty minutes with fresh solution if a stronger effect was desired. Keep in mind that chlorine action doubles in strength for every 10 degrees Celsius rise in temperature. 

It is worth noting that Woven Legends rugs were highly regarded and one of the hottest selling products in the high end hand knotted market for many years. Whatever they were doing, the public really liked it.

I have participated in the luster washing of rugs in India, Pakistan, and China as well. In all cases the wash formulations were stronger and more active than the washes used in Turkey.

Wash procedures of this sort have only a passing resemblance to the use of di-chlor in a wash tank. It is hard to compare the two but I would guess that luster washing formulations are easily ten to twenty times stronger than any effect di-chlor might have in a wash tank. 

Getting back to the rancorous politics of the moment, the question one might ask is why would someone be so worried about the use of a mild water purifier when nearly every rug they handle has been treated with a range of very powerful chlorine based luster washing procedures already? Who benefits from the continual attacks on the testing and development of safe procedures using chlorine compounds? Are people reticent to speak openly for fear of attack? One once had to drag a soap box to a corner and shout to however many might assemble. The internet has changed all that, but it has not necessarily improved the content of what is being said. Since it is nearly impossible to ignore the objections of the few, I believe it makes sense to present other views for people to consider.

Best wishes,

retrieved from

Wednesday, May 6, 2015

Should You be a Rug Washer

In response to one of my most popular blog posts

Four Steps to Building a Rug Cleaning Business

I got a great question on FaceBook: I was so pleased that I edited my response and decided to post it here.
The prestigious Red Dragon Rug Spa in England

From a Reader:
Start up costs the way your article describes bare minimum tools needed, seems extremely practical. My concern would be can I handle it, am I diversifying my business. Trading other sales dollars for rug dollars but getting nowhere.
I guess my real question is who should not get in the rug cleaning business?

My Reply slightly edited:

I find that some guys see the money but there has to be more. It takes passion to win at this.

The No Risk Approach

One possibility is to find a quality cleaner that you can sub your work. Then you offer it to your customers and start building your rug business. At a certain point you may decide it is not worth it for you or you may decide it is worth taking a class like Doug Heiferman offers so that you can start to clean some of the easier rugs from the ones you are subbing. Over time you move from subbing all to cleaning all if it works for you.
How long can you keep doing carpets, do you have the money for retirement

Are you thinking about the future

We often see guys in their 50s who realize that the old body is not 25 anymore and they want something that pays well but is not as physically taxing. A big part of it is guys want control over when they work and where they work. I hear comments like they are tired of fighting heavy equipment in and out of houses and up and down stairs. With Rug washing you are in Control.
More tile, hardwood, composite, slate, granite, etc...

Less wall to wall

Another factor is there is less wall to wall carpet being installed today. But there are more area rugs. Cleaners tell me that they go into a home to clean one or two rooms and walk by 10 rugs. Not to mention Carpet Cleaners chasing a smaller number of dollars.

You can not afford to work as cheap as some of your competition and you don't want to either.

Add to this it is easy for a Rug Washer to sell Carpet Cleaning. But it is much more difficult and lower paying for a Carpet Cleaner to sell rug washing as a sideline. In Academy of Oriental Rugs research customers tend to feel if you can clean a Persian rug you can handle any cleaning job better. But if you are a Carpet Cleaner they tend to trust you less and they want to beat you up on price.
Another point is multi-truck operators get tired of hiring and firing and all the time wondering what some yahoo may do in someone's home or even if he is going to show up on time.

Oriental Rugs are not for everybody
But some guys are best suited to be Carpet Cleaning and rugs are not their thing and that is OK too. It is your choice and your future, you decide.

I got a great response from a well known Rug Cleaner Josh Bass:
“Barry O'Connell isn't it funny... Clean 4 bedrooms, LR, DR , FR of w2w and charge 350 or clean 1 rug 9x12.”

Friday, March 20, 2015

Washing Bleeders back in the 1950s

In many hand woven rugs we see what is known as a Lustre or Luster Wash. Newcomers to hand woven rugs love the silky soft handle of the wool. The problem is that the Luster Wash is sever oxidation by powerful bleach. The rug will not last as long or wear as well and it is very risky to wash. I am not suggesting anyone Luster Wash a rug but I offer this technical bullitin to show the issues involved and also what the cleaners almost 60 years ago had to deal with.

You will see a number of outdated or dangerous chemicals described. I am not sure if it is wise to share outdated information but I decided to go with this as a historical snapshot of how things were done in yesteryear. Please do not be stupid, risky, or foolish:

NIRC technical bulletin T-73 from June 1956

Richard N. Hopper, Technical Director, National Institute of Rug Cleaning, Inc.,

How is the Chemically Washed Sheen Produced? Rough surfaced wool fiber, as pictured in Bulletin T-42, The Case of the Missing, Knots, can be made smoother, if a portion of its outer skin is dissolved away. This partial removal requires a very powerful chemical. Chlorine bleaches are just such powerful substances and are those most used in this connection. These bleaching agents are known to chemists and to trained professional cleaners as hypochlorites. There are three commonly used hypochlorites;
1.         Chloride of lime or ordinary bleaching powder, about 35% active;
2.         Calcium hypochlorite such as can be purchased under trade names such as H.T. H. or Perchloron, about 65 to 70% active ingredient.
3.         Sodium hypochlorite, (Clorox or similar ordinary liquid laundry bleach) usually about five to fifteen percent active.
The first two are cheaper and easier to keep. These are not very soluble and must be converted to the sodium type (No.3) by addition of soda ash or modified soda before they are used. In any event, the bleaches described must be diluted to an exact concentration of below 0.8 percent available chlorine

Should This Treatment Be Applied in the Conventional Rug Cleaning Plant?
In the chemical wash treatment, the concentration of the bleach liquor and the action must be carefully and accurately controlled. If not, much damage to the fiber and the dyes can occur. Hence it should not be attempted in the usual rug cleaning plant unless special equipment and thoroughly trained and experienced personnel are available.

What Happens to the Dyes When the Rugs Are Treated?
After the "chemical wash", the rugs usually have a shiny surface appearance but some the dyes may be faded. These colors are often replaced by hand painting with special bright dyes. The re-dye job is not always .complete and the colors may bleed profusely afterwards unless great, care is taken when the rugs are cleaned.

What Causes the Loss of Sheen in Cleaning?
Loss of sheen after cleaning may be attributed to either one of two causes. In the first place, imperfect soil removal and poor rinsing may cause redeposit of soil and consequential graying. Secondly, if a true soap product is used as a cleaning agent, the calcium or lime deposited on the wool during the "chemical wash" will convert this soap to sticky dull lime soap curds like a bathtub ring. These are the "tattletale gray" deposits so widely publicize4 by detergent advertisements. Since these absorb rather than reflect the light, the sheen so highly prized disappears. Often these "lime soaps" remain on the rug from previous cleanings. This "sheen" can also be dulled by wear because the "chemical wash" probably weakens the wool perceptibly. The smooth fibers are then apt to become shorter as the smooth ends break off. This in turn produces a less glossy general appearance.
Regardless of the cause of the loss of sheen, further chemical washing in our opinion is not the safest answer. We believe that careful and thorough washing and rinsing produces the most beautiful restoration of all. One method of accomplishing this follows:

A Recommended Cleaning Procedure:  

1. Inspect your Orientals carefully on receipt. Dont guess. Test each color, especially in the brighter figures for bleeding to:
a.      your detergent solution,
b.      plain water,
c.      water containing a little "Calgon” or "Sequestrene",
d.      water containing acetic acid (about one ounce of 56% to a gallon of water) and finally,
e.       a mixture of the acetic acid and your detergent solution. This last is necessary in case you have bleeding to the detergent solution and you must keep the dye "set" while the rug is wet.

2. The washing detergent is an important factor. Avoid true soaps. Instead of soaps, make use a syndet solution as follows:

  • A fatty alcohol sulfate anionic detergent * 3 lbs.
  • A nonionic detergent ** 1 lb.
  •  A water softening agent (Sequestrant) *** 1 lb.
  • Water 100 gallons
  • See mimeographed supplement to this Bulletin for further information. (N.B. I skipped the supplement since I see no point in dredging up old products which are best left in the past.)

3. Dust each rug carefully. Ten percent or more of the weight of the rug may be air removable dirt, so get that out first even if you have to run the rugs twice through the dusting machine.

4.  Clean the rug by the methods you customarily employ. Any conventional plant equipment such as the rotary brush, the automatic reciprocating brush machine or the pressure jet machine, if carefully and correctly operated, will do a satisfactory job. Some of our members also wash these rugs successfully by modified laundry wheel methods. In this case, alkaline soaps or syndets should be shunned and the washing should be done in cool or cold water at a high level. The rug should be removed from the wheel and extracted as soon as possible and while still draining.
The main thing to avoid is prolonged exposure to the wetting where one part of the carpet can be in contact with another or where concentrated drainings may flow to another part of the fabric. Never let a chemically washed oriental lie around wet on the wash floor. Handle it fast!!!

If in your inspection tests you find a tendency for a dye to bleed to your detergent or plain water, but not to the acetic acid, you should saturate the rug with a solution of about one to one-and-one-half quarts of 56%acetic acid to ten gallons of water.

Apply the detergent solution recommended and brush or jet scrub. Rinse and rescrub. Again rinse at least three times rapidly. For floor cleaning, a wooden or rubber bladed squeegee should be used for removal of the spent suds and rinse water between sudsings and rinsings. These rinses are important and unless you flush the rugs carefully and enough times, they will still come out dull. Where dye bleeding is likely use the acetic acid solution for each sudsing and for each rinse.

5.         If necessary scrub the fringes with an extra application of detergent. In this case, don’t use the acid but take care that the suds do not contact the main part of the rug. Rinse the fringes well.

6.         Squeeze roll wring the rug as tightly as possible without harming the fabric. If a vacuum is used instead, pull out as much water as you can, even if you must go over it twice. Don't delay handling; however. After the extraction, avoid rolling these rugs unless precautions are taken to prevent transfer stains. See our Bulletin T-1 "Handling Wet Rugs" for tips as to how to do this.

7.  In some rug cleaning plants “high lights" are produced by changing the direction of the pile lay while the rug is still wet. Two ways of doing this are:

a.       If a large centrifugal extractor is available, the wringing action alone will produce a random crushing effect that will show directional highlights.
b.      If a squeeze roll type wringer is used ‘highlight’s" may be produced by folding the rug while still damp and letting it set for about a half hour. In this case, be sure to place heavy clean white paper between the folds so that bleeding between different colored' figures may be avoided.

8.         If your poles are wide enough hang the rugs so that the fringes are at the sides instead of at the top and bottom. This will prevent much fringe discoloration.

9.         If you extract water by vacuum and your rugs are quite wet, it may be necessary in case of bleeders, to dry them flat.

10.       Before delivery, inspect for excellence in workmanship and for condition. You should be proud of the job.

Special thanks to Thea Sand for sharing NIRC technical bulletin T-73 from June 1956 with me.

Wednesday, February 25, 2015

The 2015 Pittsburgh RugLovers Tour

Shehady’s Oriental Rugs
135 Freeport Road, Aspinwall,
PA 15215
(412) 782-2020

Marketing and Rug Repair Workshop at Shehady’s Oriental Rugs
§  Friday April 17 to Sunday April 18th
§  Friday & Saturday 10 am to Noon & 1pm to 5pm
§  Sunday 10 am to 2pm Brunch provided

The group will split into smaller groups and break out for focused workshops.
Sessions include:
·         Finding and Selling Repairs – Wade and Barry
·         Selling the Super Wash $10 – $20 per square foot Barry & Wade
Learn the Secret of the Super Wash. You are going to discover how and why a good percentage of your clientele WILL want pay to pay you for a higher level of service.
·         Repair Seminars: Wade’s Entire Repair Staff
If you are not selling repairs on 7 out of 10 rugs that you wash you’re losing out on making a lot of money. A LOT of money.Here are a few of the simple repairs your going to learn to identify, sell, price and even know how to do yourself.
* Sides & Ends
* Splits
* Color Repair
* Patching and Cut & Shut
* Reweaving
And of course if you are not set up to do in-house repairs we’ll show you how you can outsource it, make it look like you do it in-house, and still make a LARGE profit.
A repair center is one of the best “Profit Centers” you can have in your company and one most of your competitors shy away from.

·         Learn the difference between Bundling and an Up-Sell.
There’s a big difference between bundling and up-selling. Both are good but bundling has been shown to consistently create bigger profits. Discover the secrets of bundling services in your area rug business and…
* how bundling makes it easier for your clients to decide what to get done
* how bundles will sell more of your services
* what the most profitable bundles you can offer
* how to offer the bundles so the client will nearly always say yes

·         Learn the Power Words that open doors and excite customers.
In any business the more a client trusts you, the more loyal they become. The words you use to communicate with your clients have a powerful effect on building trust.
In this section of the RugLovers Tour you’re going to learn the power words that instantly differentiate you from your competitors.
Words that bypass the logical part of the brain and zero in on the emotions that subconsciously compel your clients to want to deal with you and not your competitors.

 Sign Up Here

Wednesday, February 18, 2015

Customers won’t Pay in Advance! Or will they?

Prepay or not to Prepay that is the question;

No way, flat out no, they won’t pay in advance were some of the arguments I got from one fellow I have been coaching for years. Today almost all of his customers Prepay. What is different now? Why do they happily Prepay when he was scared to ask them before?
Confidence is the answer! He finally got up the courage to go to Prepay and he found out that no one cared. Every once in a while a good customer will ask if they can pay on pickup but it usually has more to do with forgetting their wallet or some such thing. Then there is the very small percentage of not so good customers who bring in a marginal rug and they are not sure if it is worth cleaning. Prepay may discourage them but sadly shops that don’t ask for Prepay end up with customers rugs where the customer decided it is not worth paying for. On those abandoned rugs it is not just the loss of payment but then you are stuck with them and you also pay twice in the loss of storage space and the liability. You need to insure those unclaimed and slow claim rugs.

Benefits of Prepay:
You get your money upfront
People pick up their rugs quicker.
Less unclaimed rugs

Faster turnover means less liability in case of fire, flood, etc…

Thursday, December 25, 2014

Bullseye on Their Back; Taking down the Old Guard

How to make money when the Competition uses Bleach

The bleach controversy has the Old Guard in a panic. The latest round of posturing brings to mind Shakespeare:

The lady doth protest too much, methinks.
Hamlet Act 3, scene 2

Sometimes when they are trying to dodge the truth the best thing they could do is just shut up.  Recent activity by the Bleach lobby hammered that home.  First there was a vigorous defense of Bleaching on MikeysBoard by Robert Mann and then he headed an industry Panel Discussion at a Trade Show.  Now Aaron Groseclose has penned an absolutely ridiculous article in a Trade Magazine in defense of wanton and reckless Bleaching.  That leaves the old guard, the Power Elite huddled behind their champions convinced that they are right and safe and proper. What they do not realize is that every time they call attention to the Bleach Controversy they call more attention to the Bulls Eye painted on their back.  

What they fail to realize is that Bleach is a loser issue.  If you are a Bleacher no one is ever going to give you business just because you bleach. You might get their business despite being a bleacher but it is not a selling point that brings in the business. The flipside is that Cleaners who take the No Chlorine Bleach Do No Harm promise can beat the big old established Bleach shop all day long with the Bleach cudgel.

If I were handling the marketing for a “Do No Harm” Cleaner in a big market like Denver, Dallas or San Diego I would be all over the No Chlorine Bleach pledge. You don’t even have to accuse the Power Elite cleaner in your market of being a Bleacher. Just by saying you don’t implies that they do.  So if I were in Denver I would never accuse Robert Mann of being a Bleacher. I would just say I promise to never use Chlorine Bleach on a rug without the owner’s permission and if a customer asked if Robert Mann bleaches I would say "You have to ask him". I might slip in a “Wink Wink” but you don’t need to. As long as Robert's competition treat him as an honored and revered senior statesman of the industry they play into his hands. If someone wants to really cash in in the Denver market they need to go after Robert hard. The key is that he is on the wrong side of bleach. If a good cleaner will stand up for what is Good, Right and True and Best for the customer they will take a big chunk out of the Denver pie. YOU WILL DO WELL IF YOU DO GOOD! 

It is not about putting the Power Elite out of business it is about stripping off some of their market share. If you were going up against a prestige Cleaner like Amirkhan’s in Dallas if you converted a small percentage of their customers to your business it would be incredibly profitable for a small newer start-up boutique cleaner.   You will have lower overhead and can actually charge a lot more. Does that mean that Amirkhan’s uses Chlorine Bleach on customer’s rugs without their permission?  I have no idea and it really doesn’t matter. This will work right up until they publically take the No Chlorine Bleach Do No Harm promise.

Why is Chlorine Bleach such a loser issue?

Men don’t get the Chlorine Bleach issue like women do. Women are more likely to know how destructive Chlorine Bleach is in the laundry and they know what even milder bleach will do to a woman’s hair. In testing by the Academy of Oriental Rugs woman react very positively to the No Chlorine Bleach pledge. We have never seen even one instance of where a woman customer ever says “No, I want to find a Chlorine Bleach shop”. Men generally get it when you explain how destructive it is but woman get it immediately.

What about the Blue Tub Washers?

In cases where a Do No Harm cleaner competes with a Blue Tub washer we see that very quickly the Tub Washer stops talking up their tub. One well known Do No Harm cleaner went public with the pledge and experienced a 300% increase in business going head to head with a Blue Tub shop.

What if you occasionally use Chlorine Bleach?

Explain the extreme circumstances in the pre-inspection and get a customer sign-off. The real issue is using Chlorine without telling the customer.  With a sign-off beach is OK. But the facts are that few Moore Plant or Blue Tub shops will ever admit how often they bleach.